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Check an entire QNX 4 filesystem for consistency (QNX)


When running on QNX 4:

When running on QNX Neutrino:

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Runs on:



Don't fix anything.
(QNX Neutrino only) No mountpoint; the path specified is a raw device/partition.
Prompt before starting.
Suppress prompting (i.e. fix without asking any questions).
Be quiet.
Rebuild the bitmap without prompts or messages.
Suppress the display of statistics.
Check the filesystem, regardless of the status recorded on the disk.
Be verbose. (Shows files in addition to directories as they're being checked. Slows chkfsys considerably.)
Very verbose display.
(QNX Neutrino only) Exit with detailed error codes; see below.
Record pathnames of files that need to be zapped in the specified file. The zapfile must reside on a different filesystem from the one being checked.
The disk to check (e.g. /dev/fd0, /dev/hd0t77).
(QNX Neutrino only) The filesystem mountpoint of the drive (e.g. /).


The chkfsys utility performs a consistency check of a QNX 4filesystem on the requested drive. The chkfsys utility doesn'toperate on disk partitions containing non-QNX filesystems(e.g. DOS partitions, QNX 2 partitions). In addition, chkfsysmust have access to the block special file that the filesystemis contained in. For this reason, chkfsys can't be used onNFS-mounted QNX filesystems.

The chkfsys utility claims that a Power-Safe(fs-qnx6.so)filesystem is corrupt; usechkqnx6fsinstead.
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For QNX filesystems, chkfsys recursively walks the filesystem,checking every file on the disk. During the walk, checks are made on thedirectory entry of each file and the extents that make up the file. Abitmap is constructed in memory that's consistent with the block allocationof all files and directories on the disk. This bitmap is then compared tothe existing one on the disk. If they differ, the user is given the optionof replacing the existing bitmap on disk with the one constructed in memory.

By default, chkfsyschecks an on-disk flag that's maintained by the filesystem thatindicates to chkfsys whether or not anything needs to bechecked. If the flag is set, chkfsys reports that everythingis fine and exits immediately. When you do an orderly shutdown ofthe system, this flag is always set (unless an error had occurredin the process). If you shut down the system by powering down, theflag may or may not be set, depending on the state of the filesystemat the time. You can use the -u option to force chkfsys to run even if the flag is set.

You should use chkfsys only when the filesystem isstable. There should be NO files open for writing when chkfsys is running.If you make any repairs, remount the filesystem by slaying and restarting the disk driver.

Floater df-168a evaporative ice air cooler. If you aren't doing any fixes (with the -f option), you may check a filesystem with open files, but beware: you may get inconsistent reports in this case.

The chkfsys utility is normally used to recover blocksthat were lost through the use of the zap utility. Whenzap has been used, chkfsys reports thatthere are blocks used in the bitmap that are in fact not usedby any file. These blocks may be recovered by writing thereconstructed bitmap back to disk. The chkfsys utilityattempts to read each of these blocks, but doesn't mark badblocks as available. Any blocks found this way are added to the/.bad_blks file at the root of the filesystem beingchecked.

The chkfsys utility tells you if any files are using blocks that are now known to be bad.

If chkfsys reports that a block is used by more than one file, this could indicate one of two problems:

  • If bad blocks exist, then this means that the file uses a block that's bad and marked as used in the bitmap.
  • If there are no known bad blocks, then a multiple allocation of a single block has occurred.

In either case, the file should be saved on another disk (if possible), and the original file should be destroyed with the zap utility. The chkfsys utility should then be run again to update the bitmap, after which the saved file may be restored onto this disk.

In general, whenever the bitmap is replaced, chkfsys should be run a second time to ensure that the filesystem is indeed consistent. To do so you must specify the -u option.

The -f (no fix) option prevents chkfsys from attempting to make any fixes to the filesystem. The disk isn't opened for write, but only for read. This option lets a user examine the filesystem without requiring other users to stop using the disk or filesystem. Beware, however, that the -f option may report errors that don't really exist (if other users are opening, closing, or growing files during the time that chkfsys is running). Even so, this can be a valuable option for sites that are up and running 24 hours a day, when the system operator carefully evaluates the results. If you see errors that you believe result from current activity, run chkfsys again with the -f option to verify the errors. If you have located errors that require fixing, you should idle the filesystem and run chkfsys without the -f option.

The -p (pause) option is used primarily with floppy disks. You can start chkfsys from a floppy diskette, wait for chkfsys to pause, remove the current disk (which contains the chkfsys command), and then insert another disk you wish to check.

The -q (quiet) option suppresses the display of each filename as that file is checked. This speeds up the checking significantly, without loss of information, because chkfsys shows you the name of any files that have errors.

The -r (rebuild) option suppresses the warning message that normally appears at the end of a chkfsys run when the existing bitmap differs from the newly constructed bitmap in memory. When -r is specified, chkfsys automatically rebuilds the bitmap. Note that this option isn't effective with the -f (no fix) option.

The -s (no stats) option prevents the display of the statistics message that normally appears at the end of a chkfsys run.

The -v (verbose) option displays information on the checking.

The -P (no prompt) option causes chkfsys to automatically fix problems encountered without prompting the user before each fix. However, there are some serious errors (disk IO error orcorruption of a high level directory) for which the fix may be to remove a directory (and all its hierarchy/contents). This may not be a prudentaction to undertake without user confirmation. In such a situation-P will print an error message and exit. If you wishchkfsys to continue unattended in all circumstances, you canspecify this as -PP.

The -zzapfile option is used to record, inthe named file, thenames of files that should be zapped after chkfsys isfinished. The zapfile must be on a different filesystemfrom the one being checked. When a file is found to use an area of thedisk allocated to another file, or when a file uses an area of thedisk marked as bad in the bitmap, the files must be zapped andchkfsys run again.

After a power failure

The chkfsys utility may also be run after a system crash or powerfailure, which may have left some files busy. The utility makes the files“unbusy” and also makes checks to ensure that no damage to the filesystemhas occurred. QNX is designed to be immune to this type of damage.

In the event of the loss of a filesystem due to the corruption of the rootdirectory and the bitmap (first few blocks of the disk), you should refer tothe QNX Neutrino System Architecture, and thedinit utility documentation for methods of initializingjust those portions of your disk. If only the root block and bitmap aredamaged, chkfsys is able to recover the files in mostcases. If the root directory or inode file is damaged (the next areas on the disk), recovery may be possible with the dinit, spatch,and chkfsys utilities. Note that such repair requiresintimate knowledge of the filesystem structure. Many users would justrecover lost files from a backup at this point. You shouldn't expect torun into such problems; these are very rare events that we've tried to anticipate.

Summary of filesystem commands

The following table shows the shared objects and related commands forthe filesystems:

Partition typeFilesystemShared objectInitialize with:Check with:
1, 4, or 6 DOS fs-dos.somkdosfschkdosfs
7 Windows NTafs-nt.soN/A N/A
11, 12, or 14 FAT32 fs-dos.somkdosfschkdosfs
77, 78, or 79 QNX 4 fs-qnx4.sodinitchkfsys
131 Linux (Ext2) fs-ext2.soN/A N/A
175 Apple Macintosh HFS or HFS Plusafs-mac.soN/A N/A
177, 178, or 179 Power-Safe fs-qnx6.somkqnx6fschkqnx6fsb

a Read-only.

b Not usually necessary.

For more information, see theFilesystemschapter of the System Architecture guide.


Check the filesystem on the QNX partition of a hard disk:

Check the QNX filesystem mounted as the root (/)and automatically rebuild the bitmap:

Exit status:

The exit status depends on whether or not you specified the -xoption:

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  • If you didn't specify the -x option, the exit status isas follows:
    The filesystem(s) have been checked.
    An exit status of zero doesn't indicate that no problems were found with the filesystem(s). It merely indicates that no irrecoverable errors internal to the chkfsys utility were encountered.
    The filesystem(s) may not have been checked. The chkfsys operation may have been interrupted at the request of the user or an internal error (such as running out of memory) may have occurred.
  • If you specified the -x option, the lower bit of the error code indicates whether or not anything was fixed, while the upper four bits identify the cause of failure if nonzero:
    The filesystem was clean; there was nothing to do.
    The disk data has been fixed.
    Insufficient memory.
    General program failure.
    The filesystem query or request failed.
    Failed to read from the device.
    Failed to write to the device.
    Filesystem corruption was detected but not fixed.

See also:


Backing Up and Recovering Datain the Neutrino User's Guide

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This entry was posted on 5/5/2019.